Climate Change

The global climate has changed as human activity has released more and new substances and gases into the atmosphere. This has many results, including global warming, the effect of consistently increased average global temperature, particularly in the oceans. One of the most common term associated with climate change is global warming, which can be confusing […]

Clean Production

Manufacturing processes designed to minimize environmental impact by using the minimum amount of energy and raw materials possible and producing limited waste or emissions

Ceres Principles

A ten-point code of environmental conduct that is publicly and voluntarily endorsed by companies as an environmental mission statement or ethic. Formed in 1989, Ceres is a partnership among environmental groups, labor unions, and institutional investors devoted to using shareholder power to move companies to more sustainable practices. More information:

Cause-Related Marketing

A way that businesses and corporations support and promote nonprofit organizations. A cause marketing program allows a business to engage with nonprofits over and above their community relations program. As the name suggests, the emphasis is on marketing, and that means that a business will draw on its sales and marketing resources to make the […]


In chemistry, an agent that speeds the rate of a chemical reaction. In business, this is often a term for a person who “makes things happen” by providing important knowledge, ideas, motivation or connections (relationships) in order to move an endeavor past a bottleneck.

Carbon Trading

Any trading system designed to offset carbon emissions from one activity (such as burning fossil fuels in manufacturing, driving, or flying) with another (such as installing more efficient technologies, planting carbon-reducing plants, or establishing contracts with others not to partake in carbon-releasing activities). The Chicago Climate Exchange (CCX) is the first and biggest carbon trading […]


There are a number of related meanings in finance, accounting and economics. Capital refers to assets that can be used to create other assets. Sustainable managers recognize at least three different kinds of capital: financial (cash and other monetary instruments), natural (natural resources that can be used to create products or that provide the natural […]

CAFE (Corporate Average Fuel Economy ) standards

The fuel standards for passenger cars and light trucks were established as part of the Energy Policy Conservation Act (EPCA) enacted in 1975. The Act was passed in response to the 1973-74 Arab oil embargo. Though generally opposed by industry, increasing these standards has been advocated by environmentalists as an important step towards decreasing greenhouse […]